27.11.2020

Category: Paint making formula pdf

Paint making formula pdf

Paint is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone.

Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, paint also provides decoration. Samples of the first known paintings, made between 20, and 25, years ago, survive in caves in France and Spain. Primitive paintings tended to depict humans and animals, and diagrams have also been found. Early artists relied on easily available natural substances to make paint, such as natural earth pigments, charcoal, berry juice, lard, blood, and milkweed sap.

Later, the ancient Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans used more sophisticated materials to produce paints for limited decoration, such as painting walls. Oils were used as varnishes, and pigments such as yellow and red ochres, chalk, arsenic sulfide yellow, and malachite green were mixed with binders such as gum arabic, lime, egg albumen, and beeswax.

Paint was first used as a protective coating by the Egyptians and Hebrews, who applied pitches and balsams to the exposed wood of their ships. During the Middle Ages, some inland wood also received protective coatings of paint, but due to the scarcity of paint, this practice was generally limited to store fronts and signs. Around the same time, artists began to boil resin with oil to obtain highly miscible mixable paints, and artists of the fifteenth century were the first to add drying oils to paint, thereby hastening evaporation.

They also adopted a new solvent, linseed oil, which remained the most commonly used solvent until synthetics replaced it during the twentieth century.

In Boston aroundThomas Child built the earliest American paint mill, a granite trough within which a 1. The first paint patent was issued for a product that improved whitewash, a water-slaked lime often used during the early days of the United States.

In D. Flinn obtained a patent for a water-based paint that also contained zinc oxide, potassium hydroxide, resin, milk, and lin-seed oil. The first commercial paint mills replaced Child's granite ball with a buhrstone wheel, but these mills continued the practice of grinding only pigment individual customers would then blend it with a vehicle at home.

It wasn't until that manufacturers began mixing the vehicle and the pigment for consumers. The twentieth century has seen the most changes in paint composition and manufacture. Today, synthetic pigments and stabilizers are commonly used to mass produce uniform batches of paint. New synthetic vehicles developed from polymers such as polyurethane and styrene-butadene emerged during the s.

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Alkyd resins were synthesized, and they have dominated production since. Beforepigment was ground with stone mills, and these were later replaced by steel balls. Today, sand mills and high-speed dispersion mixers are used to grind easily dispersible pigments. Perhaps the greatest paint-related advancement has been its proliferation.

While some wooden houses, stores, bridges, and signs The first step in making paint involves mixing the pigment with resin, solvents, and additives to form a paste. If the paint is to be for industrial use, it usually is then routed into a sand mill, a large cylinder that agitates tiny particles of sand or silica to grind the pigment particles, making them smaller and dispersing them throughout the mixture.

In contrast, most commercial-use point is processed in a high-speed dispersion tank, in which a circular, toothed blade attached to a rotating shaft agitates the mixture and blends the pigment into the solvent. Today, paints are used for interior and exterior housepainting, boats, automobiles, planes, appliances, furniture, and many other places where protection and appeal are desired.

A paint is composed of pigments, solvents, resins, and various additives. The pigments give the paint color; solvents make it easier to apply; resins help it dry; and additives serve as everything from fillers to antifungicidal agents.

Hundreds of different pigments, both natural and synthetic, exist. The basic white pigment is titanium dioxide, selected for its excellent concealing properties, and black pigment is commonly made from carbon black. Other pigments used to make paint include iron oxide and cadmium sulfide for reds, metallic salts for yellows and oranges, and iron blue and chrome yellows for blues and greens.

Solvents are various low viscosity, volatile liquids. They include petroleum mineral spirits and aromatic solvents such as benzol, alcohols, esters, ketones, and acetone. The natural resins most commonly used are lin-seed, coconut, and soybean oil, while alkyds, acrylics, epoxies, and polyurethanes number among the most popular synthetic resins.

Additives serve many purposes. Some, like calcium carbonate and aluminum silicate, are simply fillers that give the paint body and substance without changing its properties. Other additives produce certain desired characteristics Paint canning is a completely automated process.Pigments: give paint its color and hiding power. Vehicle: is the combination of synthetic resins and oils that surrounds the pigment particles. It determines cohesiveness providing the strength for the dried paint film as well as adhesiveness.

Carrier: thins the syrupy resins so the paint will flow on; it evaporates first as the paint dries, and it allows for varying consistencies thicker or thinner. Water is the carrier for latex paints, petroleum distillates for alkyd paints.

Making the paste. Pigment manufacturers send bags of fine grain pigments to paint plants. There, the pigment is premixed with resin, one or more solvents, and additives to form a paste.

Dispersing the pigment. The paste mixture for most industrial and some consumer paints is now routed into a sand mill, a large cylinder that agitates tiny particles of sand or silica to grind the pigment particles, making them smaller and dispersing them throughout the mixture.

The mixture is then filtered to remove the sand particles. Up to 90 percent of the water-based latex paints are processed in a high-speed dispersion tank. There, the premixed paste is subjected to high-speed agitation by a circular, toothed blade attached to a rotating shaft. This process blends the pigment into the solvent. Thinning the paste. A chemical can be sprayed along with the paint to dissolve together on the surface of the object being painted.

Some chemical reactions in paint involve the orientation of the paint molecules. A solvent evaporated and leaves the binder with pigment behind-Lacquer. An emulsion cures by water evaporating and crosslinking of polymers-water based acrylics.

A solvent evaporates, leaving a pigmented drying oil behind to oxidize and form a resinous film-Oil based paint.Paint Formulation. The binding medium o Download PDF. Recommend Documents. Paint formulation.

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Zero HAPs waterborne formulation for paint line purging and paint stripping. Organic soot pigmented paint for solar panels: Formulation, optical properties and industrial application.

Paint arrestor. Paint stripper. Paint system. Paint composition. The binding medium or binder, which in most instances is organic, will decide the basic physical and chemical properties of the paint, but these will be modified by the nature and proportion of pigments present.

In a decorative finish, for example the primary function of the pigment is to provide colour, but in a primer it should contribute to the durability of the whole system in a variety of ways depending on the substrate to which it is applied. The sole function of the volatile component or solvent is to control the viscosity of the paint for ease of manufacture and for subsequent application.

Thereafter the solvent evaporates and is lost. A further class of paint is based on a binder emulsified in water. This type of paint has increased in importance in recent years and there is considerable evidence that good anticorrosive properties can be built into paints which themselves are thinned with water. The development of these paints is attracting considerable attention because of the absence of fire hazards, a low level of harmful vapours, and performance comparable with products carried in stronger solvents.

Since the possible variations in binder alone are limitless, it is possible to produce an infinite number of paints. As the range of raw materials available to the formulator becomes wider, their chemical purity is continually being improved. Mathematical models of binders can be constructed using computers and it is usually possible to predict fairly accurately the properties of a particular formulation before it is made.

Nevertheless, the formulation of paints for specific purposes is still considered to be very much a technological art. Although formulation is an art, science finds its place in the characterisation of the raw materials, in the design and testing of the series of experimental formulae and in the interpretation of the results. The more comprehensive the information relating to requirements, the greater the probability of achieving complete success with the first practical trial.

The conditions under which the paint will be dried, e. The quantity of solvent in the paint will depend on the intrinsic viscosity of the binder and the paint viscosity appropriate to the method of application, e.

A single paint will rarely possess all the required properties and it therefore becomes necessary to formulate a system comprising a primer, a finish, and possibly one or more intermediate coats.

A primer, as its name implies, is the first coat of a system.

HOW PAINT IS MADE

Its principal functions are to provide adhesion and good protection to the substrate. The manner in which these properties are obtained will vary with the substrate, but frequently involves the use of a large proportion of a specific pigment.It is a volatile liquid used to obtain desired viscosity and flow of the paint.

It keeps the solid components of paint in suspension and also influences the adhesion properties of the surface. It is an optional component of paint i.

The solvent after application of paint evaporates to leave a solid dry film on the surface. The most common solvents used in architectural paints are water and mineral spirits. Water is used in acrylic paints both interior and exterior while mineral spirits are used in oil based paints.

paint making formula pdf

It is one of the most important and necessary components of paint. The purpose of binder in paint is to impart adhesion to the layer as well as cohesion to the pigment particles. It binds the pigment particles together to from a cohesive layer after the evaporation of the solvent. It strongly influences other properties such as gloss, toughness, flexibility and durability. Linseed oil and poppy seed oil are two of the most common oils used as binders in paint. In solvent based paints the binder is usually an alkyd resin while in water based paints the binder is usually an acrylic emulsion but some vinyl emulsions are also used.

The binder, or resin component is either dissolved in liquid solvent or dispersed in non-solvent. Paints that contain solid binder dissolved in a solvent and dry due to the evaporation of solvent are known as lacquers.

They are obtained either from living or fossilized remains. Some of the natural resins with slight addition of additives are. Pigments are granular solids which impart paint its most important properties of color and opacity. The pigments used in paint are normally present as fine solid particles that are dispersed, but not soluble, in the binder and solvent.

Majority of white paints use Titanium Dioxide as a pigment. Sometimes dyes are used instead of pigments or in combination with pigments to impart color to the paint Fillers are a special type of pigment that is used to thicken the film, support its structure and increase the volume of the paint. Fillers are usually cheap and used to reduce the cost of paint.

They are inert materials, such as clay, lime, talc etc. A pigment is a coloring material, usually in the form of an insoluble powder that is mixed with oil, water, etc. While dye is soluble in water and is used to color cloth and other porous materials. Additives are the special components of paint and are used in small quantities to impart additional characteristics to the paint.

The purpose of using additives is to. These agents are used to reduce mold growth on the paint film in very damp and humid environments. These are used to prevent the formation of a tough skin film over the paint surface during storage.

Your blog provided us with valuable information to work with. Thanks a lot for sharing. Nice Informative Blog having nice sharing.The major raw materials used for the production of the emulsion paint: water, titanium iv oxide, calcium carbonate, kaolin, calgon, natrosol, biocide P. A, ammonia, deformer Ginap kerosene, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide. Emulsion paint of two 2 samples was produced, and calcium carbonate locally obtained was used in larger quantity in order to reduce the cost of production of the paint with little of the expensive titanium iv oxide added.

The first sample was a creamy white colour paint, while the second sample has a result of the mixture of blending of locally sourced yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide.

Pigment, that was added to it. The two 2 samples gave high quality emulsion paints in terms of its brush ability, opacity, coverage, stability etc. Quality control test carried out on the two 2 samples of emulsion paint showed that the local pigment and extenders used titanium iv oxide, calcium trioxocarbonate iv, kaoline, yellow iron oxide and red iron oxide fitted in so well in the paints to give the necessary adhesion, opacity and coverage, with excellent binding effect observed.

Paint is a fluid, or semi-fluid material which may be applied to surfaces in relatively thin layers, and which changes to a solid coating with time. The coating with time. The change to a solid material may or may not be reversible, and may occur by evaporation of solvent by chemical reaction, or by a combination of the two.

paint making formula pdf

Paints usually consist of vehicle or binder, a pigment which contributes obscurities colour, hardness and bulk to the film, and a solvent or thinner which controls the consistency. Paint is basically classified into two, which are gloss paint and emulsion paint. These are paints that may be classified according to whether the drying mechanism is predominantly solvent evaporation, oxidation or some chemical reaction.

Gloss paints which dry essentially by solvent evaporation, reply on a fairly hard resin as the vehicle. Paints which dry by oxidation, the vehicle is usually an oil or an oil-based varnish, these usually contains driers to accelerate the drying of the oil.

Paint based essentially on oil with suitable pigment such as titanium dioxide, extenders, and usually zinc — oxide and white lead, are conventional outside house paints because these materials give the combination. Of properties which meet this requirement. These are paints with water — soluble vehicle and they includes, calcimines, in which the vehicle is glue and case — in paints, in which the vehicles is casein or soybean protein. This project research study is directed towards producing and formulating of emulsion paint water —thinned paint from local pigments and extenders as raw materials.

The high demand for emulsion paint for protective and decorative purposes has encourage the development of different equipments for the manufacturing operation.

This piece of research work is due to reducing the high cost of emulsion paint formulation and production, because of the imported raw materials. An example of this locally obtained raw material for emulsion paint production is calcium carbonate in the form of calcite and dolomite.

The objectives of the research project work is to study the formulation and production of emulsion paint with the use of local pigments and extenders as raw materials, and its economic value, and also disclosing some locally sourced materials from our local environment that could play the same role with the imported raw materials that are used for emulsion paint production, which causes the cost of emulsion paint production to be high.

However, industrial survey reveals that paint manufacturers in Nigeria looks beyond the country territory for supply, and also, Nigerian paints industry is characterized by importation, starting from solvents which could be obtained in abundance from the country. The scope of this research project work is organized to cover all vital aspect of emulsion paint formulation and production using local pigment and extenders as raw materials from our local environment, which will reduce the cost of emulsion paint production.

The scope will also cover paint types and classifications, characterization and functions of paints, and also chemicals used in the formulation and production of emulsion paint. However, emphasis will be laid on the systematic procedure of processing the local pigments and extenders used which will also cover the following:.

Emulsion paint formulation and production 2. Run-rest on the following properties of emulsion paint i. Drying time ii. Nature of reversibility iii. PH value iv. Specific gravity v. Obscurity vi. Viscosity vii.This collection of water-based trade and industrial formulations will be of value to technical and managerial personnel in paint manufacturing companies and firms which supply raw materials or services to these companies, and to those interested in less hazardous, environmentally safer formulations.

The book will be useful to both those with extensive experience as well as those new to the field. This book includes new and different formulations than those included in the previous volumes. The data consist of selections of manufacturers' suggested formulations made at no cost to, nor influence from, the makers or distributors of these materials.

The information given is presented as supplied; the manufacturer should be contacted if there are any questions. Only the most recent data supplied us has been included. Any solvent contained is minimal.

The table of contents is organized in such a way as to serve as a subject index. Technical and managerial personnel in paint manufacturing companies and firms which supply raw materials or services to these companies, and to those interested in less hazardous, environmentally safer formulations. Section 1. Trade Named Raw Materials Section Suppliers' Addresses. Ernest W. Flick, previously a chemical industry quality assurance administrator and technical writer.

paint making formula pdf

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However, due to transit disruptions in some geographies, deliveries may be delayed. View on ScienceDirect. Authors: Ernest W.It is a volatile liquid used to obtain desired viscosity and flow of the paint.

It keeps the solid components of paint in suspension and also influences the adhesion properties of the surface.

It is an optional component of paint i. The solvent after application of paint evaporates to leave a solid dry film on the surface. The most common solvents used in architectural paints are water and mineral spirits. Water is used in acrylic paints both interior and exterior while mineral spirits are used in oil based paints.

It is one of the most important and necessary components of paint. The purpose of binder in paint is to impart adhesion to the layer as well as cohesion to the pigment particles. It binds the pigment particles together to from a cohesive layer after the evaporation of the solvent. It strongly influences other properties such as gloss, toughness, flexibility and durability.

Linseed oil and poppy seed oil are two of the most common oils used as binders in paint. In solvent based paints the binder is usually an alkyd resin while in water based paints the binder is usually an acrylic emulsion but some vinyl emulsions are also used.

The binder, or resin component is either dissolved in liquid solvent or dispersed in non-solvent. Paints that contain solid binder dissolved in a solvent and dry due to the evaporation of solvent are known as lacquers. They are obtained either from living or fossilized remains. Some of the natural resins with slight addition of additives are. Pigments are granular solids which impart paint its most important properties of color and opacity. The pigments used in paint are normally present as fine solid particles that are dispersed, but not soluble, in the binder and solvent.

Majority of white paints use Titanium Dioxide as a pigment. Sometimes dyes are used instead of pigments or in combination with pigments to impart color to the paint Fillers are a special type of pigment that is used to thicken the film, support its structure and increase the volume of the paint.

Fillers are usually cheap and used to reduce the cost of paint. They are inert materials, such as clay, lime, talc etc. A pigment is a coloring material, usually in the form of an insoluble powder that is mixed with oil, water, etc.

While dye is soluble in water and is used to color cloth and other porous materials. Additives are the special components of paint and are used in small quantities to impart additional characteristics to the paint.

The purpose of using additives is to. These agents are used to reduce mold growth on the paint film in very damp and humid environments. These are used to prevent the formation of a tough skin film over the paint surface during storage. Your blog provided us with valuable information to work with. Thanks a lot for sharing. Nice Informative Blog having nice sharing. Subscribe to our Newsletter. Stay informed - subscribe to our newsletter.

paint making formula pdf

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